The re-write

Heading photo credit: Marcin Wichary, untitled, available under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license


In response to the analysis made of the program, Popular culture 1945 – present, the recommendations listed below were made. (You can read the analysis and recommendations here, if you have not done so already)

A summary of the recommendations (to recap)

  • Less structured inquiry
  • Use coupled inquiry in an early learning sequence to allow for explicit teaching of inquiry method and thus prepare students to engage in open inquiry in later learning sequences
  • Implement greater opportunity for students to formulate their own inquiry questions, decide how and where they will conduct their research, critically evaluate information and choose their method of presentation of conclusions
  • Creating’ exercises be altered to provide less scaffolding and allow students a greater degree of agency
  • Some ‘analysing’ exercises be adjusted to engage students in ‘evaluating’
  • The activity within Learning Sequence 6 be improved to better reflect the transformative window
  • Where appropriate, other activities should be revised to include the critical literacy aspect of the transformative window
  • The activity in learning sequence 6 that questions who is represented by definitions of “Australian” be extended to include the expressive window through an element of self-reflection
  • Regarding Essential Questions: Alteration of the program to allow students to begin by posing their own essential question after a discussion of the topic
  • Regarding Inquiry Questions, Research Questions, generic Evaluative Questions, situated Evaluative Questions, transformative Evaluative Questions and expressive Evaluative Question: active implementation and explicit teaching of the appropriate questioning frameworks, as outlined in my Prezi (see below, or use this link).
  • Regarding interpreting sources and drawing conclusions: Implementation of a questioning framework within the program to guide students in these processes. The questioning frameworks to be implemented are to draw from Gourley (2008) and a consideration of the expressive window. There should be explicit teaching of these frameworks.


These recommendations, based on contemporary theory regarding Inquiry Learning and the expectations of the Australian Curriculum for History, were implemented in a rewrite of the program, Popular culture 1945 – present. The redeveloped program, presented as a rewrite over the original program documents, can be downloaded here – as a word document.

Please note: All theoretical justifications for the recommendations given, and the re-writing of this History program have been provided through the the analysis and recommendations process, and can be found here.

Key changes to the program include:

– A grounding in the inquiry model developed in part 2 of the analysis and recommendations, this model can be seen here.

– The active pursuit of a more student-centered approach to inquiry

– An active approach to explicitly teaching the questioning frameworks and inquiry model driving the inquiry process

– The provision of scaffolding for the inquiry process that decreases over the course of the program

– The inclusion of mini-lessons to equip students with skills for efficient and effective research and re-searching (acquired through my own inquiry journey, documented here), and skills copyright and referencing responsibilities


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